After Le Corbusier
The reorganization of the State pf Punjab in 1966 resulted in
Chandigarh being declared a Union Territory besides serving
as Capital of Punjab and the newly created State of Haryana.
In the process, Chandigarh became the seat of three governments
& gained in size and stature since it already had a central
location in the region and a sublime environment complementing
its growth. Dr. M. S. Randhawa took over as the first Chief
Commissioner of the new Union Territory and was chiefly instrumental
in realization of the IInd phase in 1968 when M.
N. Sharma was the chief architect. This phase of development
comprised of 17 Nos. sectors extending from 31 to 47. The feedback
which was gained from the development of Phase-I was wisely
invested into the planning of this phase and certain fundamental
improvements were envisaged in the Sector layout, housing and
commercial environment. This phase was planned for a population
of 3.5 lacs with an average density of 60 persons per acre as
compared to 17 persons per acres in Phase-I and comprised of
an area of 27 sq. km. The first phase was developed in 43 sq.
km. of area.
The development and the character of the IInd phase of Chandigarh
that emerged gradually in the three decades of its materialization
was largely influenced by the following attributes:
Enormous Population And Development Pressure
The city recorded the highest growth rate (140%) during the
decade 1961-71. The ensuring increase in the administrative
workforce that brought more families created a market for
supporting jobs initiating a population boom. In order to
tae advantage of the development potential, the State of Punjab
and Haryana set up new capital city. Migration trends also
showed a preference for settlement in the peripheries of Chandigarh,
Panchkula and Mohali, who in turn depended on Chandigarh for
Need For Small Houses
The first phase of the city was sparsely populated with residential
plots ranging from 5 marla to 6 kanals. With the immense increase
in the population, this trend was reversed and smaller plots,
catering to more number of people were planned. The highest
category of plot in this phase in 2 kanals. The frame controls
that governed the Marla type houses in Phase-I had second
floor as Barsati, which was meant for outdoor sleeping and
other activities only. In the new phase, this frame control
was redesigned and provided changed use of space. Open to
sky sleeping terraces, so much part of the Indian life, were
provided in the control design.
Realizing its social obligation to provide economical housing
to all strata of the society, the administration decided to
provide multistoreyed housing/flats in the city. During this
phase, housing clusters were created depending on the income
levels of its citizens, viz. Lower Income Group (LIG), Middle
Income Group (MIG), and so on. This move enabled the Planners
to attain desired results; namely, denser development of strong
community based living.
Separate Land-use Pattern
The layout & the Architectural character of commercial
spaces in the new sectors was very different from that of
the initial phase shopping centers. The 'Market Square' concept
was introduced for the first time and the facades had more
glass in place of vernacular elements such as louvers &
Mixed land-use pattern has always been adopted through ages
in most of the ancient cities & towns in the country.
This is indicative of the inherent Indian Psyche of closer
proximity of living & working space to save on space,
time & ensure security with economic austerity. Accordingly,
the first phase sectors had adopted shop-cum-flat (S.C.F.)
pattern of shopping concept. These were small brick structures
with shop on ground floor, residential facility portion on
the 1st floor, and a low height barsati on 2nd floor. No basements
were, proposed, keeping in view limited business environment.
However, this concept under estimated the mindset of the affluent
inhabitants who were used to living in constrained environment
and more importantly, it didn't gauge the tremendous business
potential of the city in the days to come.
Thus, the concept of Shop-cum-Office (S.C.O.) was born in
the new phase and provided relief to corporate magnates who
favoured to locate their regional head offices in this city
due to a high degree of livability and high quality of urban
Social and Economic Changes
If the 1st phase can be called a period of controlled
growth and economic austerity due to its emphasis on creating
Govt. infrastructure and housing, the new phase could easily
be termed as a period of affluence, consolidation and prosperity.
size of the dwelling unit may have come down due to scarcity
of land, the area under commercial usage grew leaps &
bounds, with special emphasis on service industries such as
hotels, banks, private nursing homes & shopping centres
in the new sectors.
To provide world class shopping environment for the Southern
Sectors, a Sub City Centre in Sector 34 was planned with high
rise commercial establishments. This upmarket area provides
the best of commercial facilities to Phase-II Sectors and
compensates for their distance from the main City Centre.
Unforeseen Growth - IIIrd Phase is Born
The key to a City's success lies in its ability to adapt
according to changing conditions. It must continue to grow
and change in response to its people's needs. The influx of
people due to accelerated economic activities has led to scarcity
of housing resources in the city. Keeping this in view, IIIrd
phase of the city comprising sectors south of 'Vikas Marg'
has come into existence. Sectors 48 & 49 are primarily
meant for multistoreyed Cooperative Group Housing Schemes,
whereas large rehabilitation schemes have been implemented
in Sectors 55 & 56 (Palsora), Kajheri for settlement of
migratory population mainly service people, which provide
important support in maintaining the City. In all, nine new
Sectors have been planned in this phase bordering the boundary